Sunday, December 21, 2014

The Freight Yard Divideth

The second article I wrote for my book, way back in September, was the "Santa Cruz Union Depot & Freight Yard". It was an ambitious article forced early because I was writing my articles in geographic order, beginning with the Santa Cruz Wharves and ending five miles north of Boulder Creek (after a detour to Los Gatos and Vasona). Almost immediately, however, I found myself buried in too many details. The article encompassed more material than any other single location on the local railroad lines (with the exception of Watsonville, which is outside the spectrum of this current work). The next closest location was Los Gatos, which I was able to handle remarkably well in comparison. Review of the article by my editor proved to me that it had to be rewritten, at least in large parts. I set the article aside and continued with the remainder of them.

That was then, now I'm back at the article, hacking away at it like a weed. Two days ago, though, I made the final fateful decision that the article needed to be split up. There was simply too much material to include in a single article, and a combined article would keep it confusing to the common crowd. Thus, where once there was one, there is now three. I've sectored the Santa Cruz Freight Yard into three distinct parts, which roughly correspond to the progression of businesses that operated within and around the yard. The map below demonstrates a crude outline of these divisions:

Santa Cruz Freight Yard, superimposed over 2014 Google Map.
The southern division will be the first in the book, marking the site of both the original South Pacific Coast depot as well as the Santa Cruz Union Depot following the merger of the two depots that were previously located at Cherry and Park Streets on the north side of Chestnut Street. This article will also address the roundhouse, the turntable, the freight depot, the Ocean Shore Depot, the wye, and the abundant sidings and spurs located near the Neary Lagoon outlet. It will also include a few industrial spurs, though only a few, as well as the Railroad Exchange Hotel, which is where the Ocean Pacific Lodge is today.

To the east, Pacific Avenue will provide the context for the second article. Pacific Avenue is actually the oldest part of the freight yard, although it was also the first to be abandoned. Businesses sprang up along it beginning in 1875 when the Santa Cruz & Felton Railroad ran its freight cars through downtown to get to the beach. A horsecar service, located on Sycamore Street, took over the downtown route while the former right-of-way from there to the main yard became freight track for a number of lumber firms and a flour company. Most of the space outlines in blue on the map was dominated by lumber yards until the early 1910s. A portion of this article will overlap with the Union Depot article because the lumber yards often spread across roads, such as Washington Street.

The third and final article is the one I have been working on the hardest because it contains the largest concentration of businesses. Starting around 1900, warehouses began popping up along Chestnut Street just south of Laurel (with one exception). Most of these had their own or shared sidings and spurs. And since space was tight, most businesses had to wait for another business to leave before they could move in. Thus, there is a constant progression of freight businesses along this stretch all the way until 1990, when everything was demolished and replaced with track homes. Much like the Pacific Avenue section, there were multiple lumber yards on the east side of Chestnut Street that will also be addressed in this article, some yards of which stretched into neighboring areas.

So that is the task I have set out for myself. It's not an entirely fun project, to be honest. Rewrites are hard work, and this one is requiring all of my research skills to accomplish, taking a lot of time when I was hoping to be winding down the research side of things. That being said, I can't let a half-completed article get through without a fight. Parts of my book are weak, but this shouldn't be one of those.

Monday, November 24, 2014

Location! Location! Location!

I've been rather quiet on this update blog lately, mostly because I've been writing a whole heck of a lot. Every day I've written 2-4 pages, with a few days consisting of even more. I've been amazingly surprised by how even the shortest article can produce two pages of text and images. Every time! And I really mean that. Only a few articles have failed to span multiple pages. I expect the last section on the Dougherty Extension Railroad will be quite short with a lot of single-page articles there, but the rest of the book will be quite thorough.

One side-project that has occupied me, though, is a comprehensive Google Map for use online. The map has a link at the top of the Santa Cruz Trains website and also here (Santa Cruz Trains – Google Maps link!). It is not editable by the public but all of its facets can be viewed in detail by zooming and dragging around the map. I designed it specifically with the non-satellite map in mind since the satellite map often contrasts rather dramatically with the overview map. Thus, if you switch from the default view, I cannot guarantee that the illustrated lines will line up with the physical tracks, where they exist.

The map illustrates five independent things:
  • The South Pacific Coast Railroad Narrow-Gauge Line, which later became the Southern Pacific Narrow-Gauge Division, the Santa Cruz Division, and finally a component part of the Coast Division. This is the route that connected Santa Cruz with San José. Included in this is also the Santa Cruz & Felton Railroad and the Felton & Pescadero Railroad (later the Boulder Creek Branch). 
  • The Santa Cruz Railroad Line, which rather quickly became the Southern Pacific tracks between Santa Cruz and Watsonville Junction.
  • The Coast Line Railroad and the Ocean Shore Railroad, which reached along the north coast. The Coast Line was owned by the Southern Pacific and terminated at Davenport while the Ocean Shore continued to Swanton.
  • And the numerous private stops, sidings, and spurs along all of these routes. In this section, the Tunnels are also marked in as approximate a location as can be determined.
Wherever possible, the information presented on the map is based on primary source information documenting sidings and spurs and the locations of tunnels, trestles, and station signs. It is not 100% accurate, but I'd argue that track is within 15 feet of the official routes in most places. Private spurs are more speculative in general, though some are confirmed by primary-source documents. The route north of Boulder Creek, for instances, is mostly accurate until passing Waterman Switch, at which point it becomes slightly speculative. The routes in Nicene Marks and along San Vicente Creek are less certain but based on strong observational evidence from qualified explorers such as George Pepper, Duncan Nanney, and Rick Hamman. Where possible, primary source maps have also been used here, though they are less accurate in regard to private tracks.

This map is not the same as that which will be used in my upcoming book, but in many senses it is more accurate and more helpful since it puts the historic right-of-ways in a modern context. An effort to keep the trackage accurate with new information will be maintained so long as I operate the website (or have access to My Google Maps).

Please spend time checking over the map for your own interest and for mine. If you notice anything that seems off, let me know on this thread or at the Santa Cruz Trains Facebook group. I want to get the routes as perfect as possible prior to publication of my book. Note, however, that only the lines running north out of Santa Cruz are going to be in my book. The east and west lines will have to wait for some future publication.

Monday, September 22, 2014

Review Schedule

Three weeks ago I embarked on a blitzkrieg of article writing. Surprisingly, after having completed the first section, I am still on track. In fact, I got ahead once and it looks like I may again in a few weeks when two partially completed articles catch up to me.

Once I finished and edited the first section, I began sending out my articles for reviewing and critique. Barry Brown ended up being the first target. He is the local expert on the California Powder Works so, appropriately, got that article. He got back to me within hours with a whole slew of revisions, which were excellent. Now I've set a high bar for everyone else! Frank Perry and Robert Piwarzyk are my next victims, and I've got a promise by Frank to review three of the articles, with a recommendation for Robert to review all three also.

I began two days ago on the next section, focusing on the length of track between Felton Junction and the summit tunnel (though not including the latter). I skipped the prelude article and pushed it to the end of the section's writing, then did the same for the remaining sections. I found that the first prelude ended up repeating a lot of information from the individual articles, so I want to write them afterwards now to avoid redundancies. They still will intro the sections, but just not be so repetitive. I also skipped the Journeys article, but that's more because I didn't have time that day. I've rescheduled for a day when I should have quite a bit of free time.

Below, I've taken my current article index and added beside it the names of my suggested reviewers. I'm still missing A LOT, though, so any suggestions for people...or volunteers...is appreciated. Two reviewers for each article is the history standard. The only requirements are that you have a passing knowledge of historical writing and that you feel you know quite a bit of the area's history. Railroad history is a bonus! Check out the list below for further details:

After the Golden Spike
Methods

Section 1: 
Prelude –
Journeys – Duncan Nanney
The Santa Cruz Wharves – Frank Perry, Michael Luther & Robert Piwarzyk
Santa Cruz Union Depot & Freight Yard – Jim Vail
Cherry Street Depot & Mission Hill Tunnel –
Mission Orchard & the Potrero District Spurs – Michael Luther
Golf Links – Joan Martin & Colleen McInerney-Meagher
The California Powder Works – Barry Brown
Shady Gulch Trestle & Rincon Tunnel –
The Cowell Limeworks at Rincon – Frank Perry, Michael Luther & Robert Piwarzyk
Coon Gulch Tunnel –
Big Trees Landing – Lisa Robinson
Fahihn & Hihn's Gold Gulch Mill – Randall Brown
Holmes Limeworks – Frank Perry, Michael Luther & Robert Piwarzyk
Old Felton & the Flume Terminus – Lisa Robinson & Randall Brown

Section 2: 
Prelude –
Journeys – Duncan Nanney
Felton Junction –
Big Trees – Traci Bliss & Randall Brown
Roaring Camp – Nathan Goodwin
Felton Depot –
Mount Hermon – Dan Dawson
The Olympia Sand Quarries – Jim Vail 
Olympia & Eccles –
Hayes Spur & the Union Mill Spur –
Kenville & Eccles Tunnel –
Dougherty's Mill & Meehan –
Zayante & Tank Siding –
Clems & Mountain Charlie Tunnel –
Glenwood & Glenwood-Laurel Tunnel – Mark Vande Pol
Laurel & Edric – Stan Stevens

Section 3:
Prelude –
Journeys – Duncan Nanney
Summit Tunnel –
Wright –
Sunset Park –
Call of the Wild & Eva –
Aldercroft –
Alma – Julia Gaudinski
Lexington & Lyndon – Julia Gaudinski
Cats Canyon Tunnel –
Los Gatos Depot & Freight Yard – Edward Kelley
Grove Park & Bunker Hill Park –
Forbes Mill Spur –
Billy Jones Wildcat Railroad – Edward Kelley
Bulwer –
Vasona Junction & Station – Edward Kelley & Robert Bowdidge

Section 4: 
Prelude –
Journeys – Duncan Nanney
Felton Grove & Bonnie Brae – Vicki Wees
Rubottom & Brackney –
Glen Arbor –
Newell Junction & C.T.C. Mill –
Ben Lomond –
Phillipshurst –
La Siesta – Lisa Robinson
Fish Hatchery –
Brookdale & Reeds Spur – Aubrey Graves
Boulder and Grover Mills, Joy Camp & Harris –
Lorenzo & Filbert –
Boulder Creek –

Section 5:
Prelude –
Journeys – Duncan Nanney
Harmon Mill & McAbee Mill –
Cunningham Mill, King's Creek Mill & Wildwood –
Dougherty's Mill & Riverside Grove –
Sinnot Switch & Chase Mill Spur –
McGaffigan Switch –
Waterman Gap Mill –
End of Track –

Fading Into Dust

Unassigned Reviewers:
Sangye Hawke
Kanda Whaley
Harold Whaley
Brian Liddicoat
George Pepper

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

The Great Writing Blitzkrieg

Starting last week, I have begun a writing blitzkrieg with the goal of having the first draft of my book done by the end of November. This attempt has not gone perfectly smooth. Two days were completely missed already while writing of the Santa Cruz Union Depot & Freight Yard article ate up two extra days and will likely eat up another in editing. Writing is neither easy nor entirely fun, but it is necessary to completing this great project I have undertaken. So here's the plan...let's see how well I stick to it:

August:
30-31 – The Path of the Iron Horse [DONE!]

September:
1 – Prelude: The Dream of Steam [DONE!]
2 – Journeys: From the Bay to the Mountains [DONE!]
3 – The Santa Cruz Wharves [DONE!]
5-7 – Santa Cruz Union Depot & Freight Yard [Mostly done]
8 – Cherry Street Depot & Mission Hill Tunnel [DONE!]
9 – Mission Orchard & the Potrero District Spurs [DONE!]
10 – Golf Links [DONE!]
11 – The California Powder Works [DONE!]
12 – Shady Gulch Trestle & Rincon Tunnel [DONE!]
13 – The Cowell Limeworks at Rincon [DONE!]
14 – Coon Gulch Tunnel [DONE!]
15 – Big Trees Landing [DONE!]
16 – Fahihn & Hihn's Gold Gulch Mill [DONE!]
17 – Holmes Limeworks [DONE!]
18 – Old Felton & the Flume Terminus [DONE!]
19 – Editing & Revising Day
20 – Felton Junction [DONE!]
21 – Big Trees [DONE!]
22 – Roaring Camp [DONE!]
23 – Felton Depot [DONE!]
24 – Mount Hermon [DONE!]
25 – The Olympia Sand Quarries [DONE!]
26 – Olympia & Eccles [DONE!]
27 – Kenville & Eccles Tunnel [DONE!]
28 – Dougherty's Mill & Meehan [DONE!]
29 – Zayante [DONE!]
30 – Tank Siding & Virginia [DONE!]

October:
1 – Clems & Mountain Charlie Tunnel [DONE!]
2 – Glenwood & Glenwood Tunnel [DONE!]
3 – Laurel & Edric [DONE!]
4 – Prelude: The Other Valley [DONE!]
5 – Journeys: How Little Remains [DONE!]
6 – Editing & Revising Day
7 – Summit Tunnel [DONE!]
8-10 – [Vacation]
11 – Wright & Sunset Park [DONE!]
12-13 – [Moving Days]
14 – Call of the Wild [DONE!]
15 – Eva [DONE!]
16 – Aldercroft [DONE!]
17 – Alma [DONE!]
18 – Lexington & Lyndon [DONE!]
19 – Cats Canyon Tunnel [DONE!]
20 – Grove Park & Bunker Hill Park [DONE!]
21 – Los Gatos Depot & Freight Yard [DONE!]
22 – Forbes Mill Spur [DONE!]
23 – Bulwer [DONE!]
24 – Vasona Junction & Station [DONE!]
25 – Billy Jones Wildcat Railroad [DONE!]
26 – Prelude: Descent Into Darkness [DONE!]
27 – Journeys: Lost & Forgotten [DONE!]
28 – Editing & Revising Day
29 – Riverside & Felton Grove [DONE!]
30 – Kent's Spur & Bonnie Brae [DONE!]
31 – Rubottom & Brackney [DONE!]

November:
1 – Glen Arbor [DONE!]
2 – Newell Junction & C.T.C. Mill [DONE!]
3 – Ben Lomond [DONE!]
4 – Phillipshurst [DONE!]
5 – La Siesta [DONE!]
6 – Fish Hatchery [DONE!]
7 – Brookdale & Reeds Spur [DONE!]
8 – Boulder and Grover Mills, Joy Camp & Harris [DONE!]
9 – Lorenzo & Filbert [DONE!]
10 – Boulder Creek [DONE!]
11 – Prelude: A Redwood Paradise [DONE!]
12 – Journeys: Over the River & Through the Woods [DONE!]
13 – Editing & Revising Day [DONE!]
14 – Harmon Bros Mill [DONE!]
15 – Morrell Mill & McAbee Bros Mill [DONE!]
16-17 – Cunningham Mill & Wildwood [DONE!]
18 – King's Creek Mill [DONE!]
19 – Dougherty's Mill [DONE!]
20 – Sinnot Switch & Chase Mill Spur [DONE!]
21 – McGaffigan Switch [DONE!]
22 – Waterman Gap Mill [DONE!]
23 – End of Track [DONE!]
24 – Prelude: Beyond Civilization [DONE!]
25 – Journeys: Into the Wilderness [DONE!]
26 – Editing & Revising Day
27-28 – Fading into Dust [DONE!]
29-30 – After the Golden Spike [DONE!]

December:
1-31 – Editing and academic review of articles; photo matching and contacting appropriate photo sources.

January:
1-31 – Photo input and captioning; final editing and analysis; further outside editing and reviewing.

February:
1-15 – Final edits and reviews; finalize Foreward & Acknowledgements and Index.
16 – Submit book to Lulu.com for publication by February 28th.

That's my plan for publishing my book. A lot of work, still, especially since I also have to be working on my dissertation proposal during this time, as well as go on a driving tour of New Zealand. We'll see how well things go. I may have to work overtime a few days on some of the smaller articles to give myself enough to to work. Not impossible, but still a bit of a pain. Well, here's to wishing!

Monday, August 18, 2014

New Sample Pages

A lot has happened in the past few months, the most important of which is that I have moved from Santa Cruz. That's right, the author of Santa Cruz Trains: Railroads of the Santa Cruz Mountains will not longer be centered in Santa Cruz County. But don't worry, I came prepared and I have a number of people working with me in Santa Cruz helping me when something is missing.

That being said, I have applied for the prestigious James Dolkas Memorial Fund award given by the History Forum annually to recognize and encourage the work local historians. Since I obviously won't be able to attend the dinner in November, I have only asked for half the award amount so that I can buy some photographs for my book. While I have many photos, I could always use more and most of those that I still need cost money.

As a part of the application, I decided to write up a new article for my book. I'm mostly finished with the sourcing portion of my research right now, but with all the moving going on, I'm taking a break before I start intensively writing. But for the award, I decided to expand my recent Press-Banner article on Dougherty's Mill & Meehan Station into a full article, with citations and all. The end result is the two-page spread sampled below


As you can see in the sample, the formatting is basically done at this point, with the only remaining problems related to the sizing of photographs and captions. I decided to intrude a bit onto adjacent columns for more relevant photos (such as both of these) since the photo is very important to the look of the article.

Another new addition is the "Conductor's Notes" section. This is a new feature that spun off from the original "site summary" boxes that I had intended to include. The end-result of those boxes was that they took up too much space. These new boxes look much better with the flag and easy-to read larger text. The information is also much more simplified. The "Active" dates are not just for the entire stop's history, regardless of name changes. The GPS coordinates remain from the old version. "From" distances are simplified to simple averages worked out by analyzing around a hundred different time tables and agency books. The distance to Santa Cruz is nearly exact, but the distance to San Francisco is via the Mayfield Cut-off in most cases, and is subject to variance depending on the date. This fact will be explained in the earlier methods section and it may change by the final draft. The "Owner" section regards the current owner of the property. "Private residents" is code for "don't ask because I'm not telling; don't visit because it's trespassing."

The citations, as I expected, are still the biggest source of annoyance. While I don't want to turn to end-notes, these little hanging items are currently in two columns in smaller text at the end of the article. This is where they will stay, but longer quotations, which are inevitable, will require me to use multiple lines, something I really don't want to do when possible. As for this list, Centennial was reduced simply to Cent. to fit on the page, while Water District was shrunk even further to District. Although neither of these prescriptions are unheard of in academic writing, I wish I didn't have to do it here since it really shrinks the sources to their bare minimums.

That's it for now. Feel free to open these images as their own pages and read through. Tell me what you think and what changes, suggestions, errors, clarifications, etc. you would perhaps like. This is still a first draft (though it is heavily edited) so let me know because I want to get it right for future articles. I only have about 99 to go! Cheers! Next time I write, I'll be living in New Zealand!

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Stations Lacking Information

If you have any primary or secondary source information regarding these stations, please do not hesitate to forward the information to me. Thanks!

• Santa Cruz Freight Yard
– Grover Planing Mill
– Centennial Flour Mill
– Olive & Foster Planing Mill
– Wholesale Oil Distributor
– Central Supply Aggregates
– H.T. Moore Warehouse
– Union Ice Company
– Sperry Flour Company
• Casa del Rey Country Club & Gold Links
• Olympia
• Eccles
• Hayes Spur
• Union Mill Spur
• Virginia
• Clems
• Call of the Wild
• Casey's, Forest Grove & Eva
• Oil City, Oleoso & Aldercroft
• Bermingham & Bulwer
• Vasona Junction & Station
• Rubottom & Brackney
• Glen Arbor Spur
• Phillipshurst
• Camp Joy & Harris
• End-of-Track Logging Camp near Waterman Switch

Saturday, July 12, 2014

Lecture Recap

Today at Researchers Anonymous, I had a big going-away party in the form of a two-hour lecture. I titled it "Santa Cruz Trains & Researching in the Digital Age". It went overwhelmingly well and I timed it perfectly, including the ten-minute intermission. I decided against advertising the event publicly since it really wasn't intended for the public but rather other researchers.

I've posted the slide-show for the event here accessible by the "Lecture" link above or from here. A video recording of the event should be available in a little while. I planned to do audio but ran into problems with my slideshow and sort of just forgot to record the event. Hopefully the video catches most of it.

In the end, I actually proved many of my points, which was great. Virtually every question that was asked I was able to answer in a satisfactory manner. Many questions were answered through later slides, as well, which means I anticipated them. More importantly, though, was my ultimate point: history should be crowdsourced. I made this point near the end of the lecture and I proved it after the end when no less than five people approached me offering help and information. Of those, one offered me access to her photo and map collection, three offered me tours of their properties (or adjacent properties), and one offered me the contact information for someone who may have some photographs and information.

This is the core element of crowdsourcing—a sort of ask for something and get everything. Crowdsourcing doesn't have to involve money, it can be information, or access, or just an ear to help work out problems. That is one of the purposes of this blog, even, to allow myself as a historian to work out problems and announce discoveries. This is not a historical blog, this is a historiographical blog—it's purpose is to document the process of researching. And while I don't do that job perfectly, I do it as best as I am able.

Thank you to everyone who has helped me or plans to help me in the future. I truly appreciate it and I hope every one of you I remember to reference in my book as a contributor because you earned it.

Moving on to one last point, I had four photographs that were posted in my lecture as mysteries. I'm going to post them here now so that other people can check them out and tell me what they think.

Possible photo of the F.A. Hihn Mill at Laurel. (Santa Cruz MAH)
Hillside trestle near Laurel...or Los Gatos? (Santa Cruz MAH)
Trestle "at Brookdale", though not literally. (Ronnie Trubek)

Reverse of "At Brookdale" postcard of trestle. (Ronnie Trubek)
Another stretch of right-of-way near Brookdale, with a trestle in the distance. (George Pepper)

Thursday, July 10, 2014

Press-Banner Article

This week I was published in the Press-Banner of Scotts Valley and the San Lorenzo Valley. The article is about Meehan Station, the hub for Zayante. Granted, I have connections there, but I couldn't pass up an opportunity to get an article published. Check out this week's issue or head on over here to read all about it. Or, here's a transcription of the article:

Guest column: Meehan Siding, a forgotten piece of Zayante's history
Jul 10, 2014

Olympia - Meehan1submitted7-11-14 .The Meehan siding, shown here in 1939, was once the hub of rail commerce to the Zayante community in the early 20th Century until heavy rains destroyed it in 1940. Courtesy of the Jim Vail Collection
The Meehan siding, shown here in 1939, was once the hub of rail
commerce to the Zayante community in the early 20th Century
until heavy rains destroyed it in 1940. Courtesy of the Jim Vail Collection.

Few would consider the village of Zayante as a bustling railroad town and, indeed, it never truly bustled. But it did draw tourists in droves.



The community, historically located along East Zayante Road between Lompico Creek and Mountain Charlie Gulch, began life in the 1870s as a series of logging mills, the largest of which was owned by the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company at the confluence of Mountain Charlie Gulch's creek.


Above the creek on the east bank, the South Pacific Coast built its narrow-gauged railroad, definitively linking Santa Cruz County with San Francisco.

At a place known as Dougherty's Spur, a rickety track winded across Zayante Creek and joined with today's East Zayante Road near Zayante Drive.

Disaster struck the mill in 1886, burning the entire complex down a year before logging operations were to have concluded. Moving on to more profitable ventures, the logging company reestablished itself north of Boulder Creek at a site that became Riverside Grove.


The old spur was pulled up but a siding was retained at a stop called Meehan, named after Southern Pacific Railroad track foreman Patrick Meehan.

Meehan became the railroad hub for the Zayante community. Seasonally, tourists would come from all over the Bay Area and beyond to stay at Zayante Lakes, Zayante Park, and various camps in the hills.


When Lompico was first being laid out, Meehan was the designated railroad stop for the community. Excursion trains stopping for picnics alongside the creek would park on the siding to allow passengers off while scheduled trains passed through.

In the stormy winter of February 1940, the siding at Meehan suffered significant damage with much of it sinking toward the creek. Other places throughout the line between Los Gatos and Felton also sustained catastrophic damage.


The stop had already declined in attendance over the past decade and the siding had gone into disuse.

The damage to the route proved too costly to repair for the Southern Pacific and the entire line was shut down. Meehan disappeared into history as a forgotten name of a forgotten place.

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Final Thoughts on Mile Markers

The timetables and station books of the South Pacific Coast and Southern Pacific railroads include many details that often go overlooked. The most prominent and important of these are stations and stops that have not been noted before. The following is my (hopefully) final attempt at combining all the various time tables into one coherent grid that will be used and referenced in my book. Superscripted terms refer to the first appearance of that station or stop at that location, thus "SPC10" means "South Pacific Coast Timetable #10" while "CT79" means "Coast Division Timetable #79". For station books, they are noted by year with "SB" in front. Not everything is notated with sources, in which case the source is probably Coast Division Timetable 129 or it was so frequent I simply didn't notate a specific source.

Main Line:
-0.2 Santa Cruz Beach [Wharf]SPC10
0.0 Santa CruzSC3
0.8 Santa CruzSPC10 / Park Street
1.0 Tunnel 8 SidingSB1899 / EblisSB1900
1.1-1.2 Eblis Spur
1.1 Mora Street
1.5 Cement WorksSB1888
2.3 Golf Links
2.5 Powder Works Spur
3.6 SummitSCP10
3.8 RinconSC1
5.3 Felton JunctionCT67
5.5 Felton JunctionCT75
5.9 Big Trees
6.8 Felton
7.1 CampusCT25 / TuxedoCT53 / Mt. Hermon
8.1 Hayes SpurCT67
8.3 OlympiaCT75 / Hayes SpurCT79
8.8 Union Mill SpurCT67 / OlympiaCT108
9.0 Eccles SpurCT79 / Union Mill SpurCT82
9.1 Eccles SpurCT67
9.2 Eccles SpurCT67 / OlympiaCT94 / Eccles SpurCT124
10.2 Doughertys SpurSB1891 / KenvilleSB1893 / EcclesCT95
10.3 Dougherty’s MillSPC10 / MeehanSC1
10.6 Zayante SpurSB1891 / MeehanSB1892
11.6 White Flag SpurSB1891 / Zayante SpurCT79
11.8 Zayante SpurCT82
11.9 Zayante SpurCT67
12.6 Tank Siding
13.0 Virginia Spur
13.4 Tunnel No. 4SB1888 / Clems SpurSB1891
14.4 Glenwood 
15.8 HighlandSPC19 / LaurelSC1
16.5 Edric Spur
17.8 WrightSC14
17.9 WrightCT87
18.0 WrightCT82
18.9 Call of the Wild
19.0 Forest GroveSC14 / EvaCT25
19.2 EvaCT82
19.5 Casey’sSB1888 / Forest GroveSC1
20.7 AldercroftCT90
21.0 Oil CitySB1888 / OleosoSB1901 / AldercroftSB1905
21.2 AldercroftCT75
22.2 Alma
23.1 Rock  Quarry SpurSB1891 / Lyndon
24.9 Los Gatos
26.9 Parr’s Spur TrackSB1888
27.1 BerminghamCT75 / Bulwer SpurCT121
27.4-31.1 Vasona Junction
27.8 Vasona Spur

Felton & Boulder Creek Branch:
6.8 Felton
7.4 River StationCT53 / RiversideCT67 / PettisCT79
7.5 Old Felton Spur
7.8 Bonny Brae
8.3 Kent’s SpurSB1891
8.5 PettisCT81
8.7 PettisCT86 / BrackneyCT88
8.9 Rubbottom Spur
9.1 Glen Arbor Spur
10.3 Newell Junction Spur
10.7 Ben Lomond
11.7 Phillipshurst
12.0 Siesta Spur
12.2 Steen SpurSB1899 / SiestaSB1909
12.3 Fish Hatchery
12.7 Reeds SpurSB1892 / ReedCT40 / Brookdale SpurCT53
13.2 Boulder Mill SpurCT67 / Joy CampCT84 / HarrisCT86
13.5 LorenzoSB/SPC1888 / FilbertSB1890
13.7 Cunningham’sSB1888
14.1 Boulder Creek

Old Felton Branch:
5.5 Felton JunctionCT75
6.5 FahihnCT75
7.2 Old FeltonCT75

Newell Creek Branch:
10.3 Newell CreekSB1908
11.3 Newell Creek MillSB1908

Friday, June 20, 2014

Cartography Today

After numerous failed attempts at making maps for my books, I decided that I'd go a more classical way. I am no artist, but I can trace well enough. Using a light table, 14 pages of 100%-resolution US Geological Survey maps from 1955, and a few pencils and pens, I reconstructed the route over the Santa Cruz mountains and up past Boulder Creek. But there were numerous factors to consider including:
  • Conflicts between historic sources regarding the right-of-way,
  • Which waterways to include and which to leave out,
  • Which roads to include and which to leave out,
  • How to denote tunnels, trestles, and other features, and
  • How to differentiate the three primary features on a black-and-white map.
Each of these problems I took in turn. For the right-of-way, I generally used a combination of USGS maps dated prior to 1940 (or, in one case, from 1940), railroad survey maps from around 1907, and contemporary information based on scouting of the specific regions, especially for the areas north of Boulder Creek (thanks to Duncan Nanney for much of this information).

The decision regarding waterways was more simple. Obviously the entirety of the San Lorenzo River was included from its headwaters to its outlet to the Pacific Ocean. Other than that, waterways were chosen based on how they impacted the railroad. If a trestle was involved, the waterway was included. If the railroad was forced down a specific path because of a waterway, it was included. In a few cases, it is included because of its relative importance (such as Bean Creek).

Roads are the more difficult challenge. Highway 9 especially changed course multiple times through the years. Its 1955 alignment was chosen for my maps and in most cases, it follows the current alignment. Other roads were chosen based on historic importance, with modern-day Highway 17 appearing alongside the historical Glenwood Road (the former Glenwood Highway). In Felton, Conference Drive (historically Mount Hermon Road) trumps today's Mount Hermon Road, since the latter conflicts with the geography of the region during railroad times. East Zayante Road is shown until it turns away from the tracks, while in Santa Cruz, CA State Route 1 is shown mostly as it is today since the freeway was built soon after the line over the mountain was closed. Roads are a constant difficulty in these maps, but they provide a context to both then and now that many will appreciate. While they probably will not be named in the end due to frequent name changes for many of them, they will remain as an important part of the evolution of the railroad.

Differentiating between the features is a whole different problem. I decided that stops would have simple dots to note their locations, generally on the side of the track where the structure, sign, or platform sat. Tunnels would be large rectangles that are wider than the tracks. Bridges would be the same width as the track but be hollow inside. Other railroad features, such as sidings and spurs, would be notated by adding track to the side of the main line.

The three primary features themselves were dealt with initially by being three separate layers. Rivers and creeks (and the ocean) constituted one sheet of paper, roads a second, and the track itself a third. Once input into Adobe Illustrator, the three were created as separate editable layers that were then "Line Traced" to render them as vector-based images (and quite a bit smaller in file size). From there, the river and creeks were hollowed out and made bubbly to make them look like water. The standard-gauge track was doubled in thickness and all segments of track that were never standard-gauged (i.e., they remained or were only ever narrow gauge) were isolated from the main line with cross-ties added to differentiate them from roads. The roads remained 1-pt wide as they were originally rendered by the Line Trace.

Once all of this is done on each of the 14 segments of the map, they are added to a master page that combines all of the maps together into one geographically-accurate grid, from which segments can be pulled for the five individual pages in the book that will be dedicated to maps (they will be facing the title page of each of the five primary sections of the book). Actual text is added at this point in the standard font and size of the actual book.

So now that I've gone over all of this, most of you are probably eager to see what I actually mean by it all. Here's a visual process of what I did. The following is a map of the northernmost part of the Dougherty Extension Railroad, just north of Riverside Grove. It is not entirely cleaned up yet (I'm having problems connecting overlapping end-points), but I can still use it to illustrate my point. 

I started with a USGS map:
1955 USGS Map (Castle Rock Ridge)
Using this map, I outlined the major waterways in pen, and the path of the railroad in pencil. Then, using a light table, I transferred each of these and Highway 9 and Highway 236 onto three separate sheets of paper, copying also the scale ruler from the first map I copied from (remember, all these maps are at 100% resolution):

Map of roads

Map of railroad right-of-way

Map of the San Lorenzo River and feeder creeks
With these three maps completed by hand, they were then scanned and inputed into Adobe Illustrator where they could be prepared for the actual map page. The lines are traced and copied into a joined overlapping file with each page being input as its own layer. The layers are assigned different colors and then moved into their appropriate places. Labels at the top of the page are removed and the ruler is replaced with a digital copy. Trestles and tunnels are added, while station dots are replaced with black squares. In the example below, trestles have not yet been added due to an annoying error in Illustrator. Waterways have also not been named, though they will—I have yet to figure out how to get them to render well.

Illustrator-rendered combined image of the waterways, road, and tracks
Finally, in iWork Pages, the formatting program for my book, I add captions for the locations (and, in this case, for one of the creeks). That ends with the final image:

Final book version (or in this case, a rough draft with numerous things left to do...)
That's pretty much it. It takes a good amount of time per sheet but each map becomes easier to do than the last. Eventually everything will be combined into a über-large map that will then be divided as needed for the five book maps.

Let me know what you think, and feel free to give me your thoughts and opinions on the process, the end result, and possible changes I should consider making. Cheers!

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

The Scandal of 1940: The Closure of the Southern Pacific Mountain Route

Back in 2011, a friend and I thought it would be interesting to look back into the archives of local history and see if there was any specific reason why the Southern Pacific Railroad shut down its railroad franchise in Santa Cruz in 1940. We'd heard rumors of financial misconduct, a terrible storm, the threat of Japanese invasion, and various other urban legends, but neither of us were accepting them at face value. Even Rick Hamman's book made it seem a little vague what exactly caused the SP to give up on the Santa Cruz Mountain route and reroute everything through Watsonville Junction. Something just wasn't adding up. So we went to the University of California, Santa Cruz, and looked it up in the archives of the Santa Cruz Sentinel newspaper.

Aaaaannnnddd I got off track—almost immediately. I decided that the February 1940 date for the storm that destroyed the mountain route didn't sound right, so I started my research with November 1939 when another bad storm hit Santa Cruz. I had some evidence to support this earlier date, but naturally Rick Hamman was correct in pointing to the afternoon of February 26th, 1940 as the last run over the mountain—documentary evidence backs it up thoroughly. What I did find that November, though, was an interesting editorial letter written by the Sentinel's staff proposing that the San Lorenzo Valley be renamed "Big Trees Valley" after the redwood trees found throughout the region and specifically after Big Trees County Park (the future Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park). This topic took off and I explored it through to its conclusion in February 1940. An article on the topic even got published by the Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History in its Redwood Logging & Conservation in the Santa Cruz Mountains—A Split History (History Journal #7) which is releasing on June 8th. Although the topic excited me, it distracted me from my original goal as well and it was another year before I resumed research on the closure of the line.

Looking through the Sentinel, the research began two days after the route was shut down by storms. The February 25th-27th storm was one of the worst in its history, with waves so strong that they were reaching the Boardwalk's Casino and levies were overflowing in downtown. The entire county was cut off from the outside world for a few hours, as slides at Wadell Beach, on Highway 9, on Highway 17, at Mount Madonna and Chittenden Pass closed off everything except Highway 1 southbound. The damage to the San Lorenzo Valley was massive—Boulder Creek was cut off, parts of Zayante Road were in the creek, and the railroad tracks near the top of the grade were covered in sand with washouts and sinks knocking tracks out of alignment. When all was said and done, Santa Cruz County was forced to petition both the state and the federal government for assistance in restoring all services to the county, with the WPA coming to the rescue on multiple fronts. Largely unnoticed for the first two weeks, the railroad was quietly rerouted through Watsonville as Southern Pacific assessed the damage.

Although at first optimistic about the line's reopening, quickly SP declared the entire branch lost to the storm and petitioned for its abandonment stating the costs of repair and future upkeep were too high. Thus the scandal began. The Sentinel recorded the public reactions to the debate while the Evening News maintained detailed summaries of each Santa Cruz chamber of commerce meeting. The SP became defensive as Santa Cruzans protested against the abandonment, and perhaps they were right—the franchise was theirs to control and it was clearly losing money, despite local protests. But the locals had a point too: SP was the only rail service in Santa Cruz and it didn't seem fair that the company could pick and choose its lines without thought to the community that lived along them. The debate raged for months, with silences between the temporary abandonment hearing in late April and the formal abandonment hearing in early July. In the end, SP used some sneaky tactics to ensure that their line was closed, changing venues at the last minute and barring testimony from the newspapers who had spent months assisting the chamber of commerce in its research.

The Southern Pacific was granted permission by the Interstate Commerce Commission in November 1940, nearly half a year after the hearing doomed the campaign and after the German invasion of the Low Countries distracted the populace with foreign war exploits. Over the ensuing months, SP removed the track and sold it for scrap to help build weapons, then they contracted out to H.A. Christie & Sons to help demolish the tunnels. Christie sold the good quality tunnel support wood to local wood suppliers then closed the tunnel portals one-by-one—Summit, Glenwood, then Clems—finishing work by the end of April 1942. The Eccles Tunnel remained opened, though abandoned, until 1954 when the Western States Atomic Vault Company took it over for use to store important state documents in the event of nuclear war. The remaining two tunnels were retained by Southern pacific for use on the stub line between Santa Cruz and Olympia, where two sand quarries and Big Trees County Park justified the line's continued existence.

An article was planned on this topic, but the article has gotten seriously out of hand. I'm at four pages already and so far I have cited two articles...out of 55 pages of articles. Yeah, I'm in trouble. I've decided that "The Scandal of 1940" may well become Santa Cruz Trains: The End of the Line, a short booklet (100ish pages) that I hope to publish through the Museum of Art & History next February, if they're willing. It would follow a similar format to their Notes from Santa Cruz book on Santa Cruz's musical history and would be equally as brief. I have a number of photographs of the line from 1940, all in terrible quality but that is all what is available (seriously, the originals were lost). I also am getting into contact with the owner of Will Whitaker's collection, a man who took photographs of the line between 1936 and 1941.  Through these I hope to make a short tie-in book that will summarize the end of mountain railroading in 1940, as well as perhaps the earlier end of the Felton spur in 1928, the Boulder Creek branch in 1934, and the Los Gatos branch in 1959.

Any thoughts on this, submissions of photographs, or primary source documents would be greatly appreciated in this side-project. Thank you!

Thursday, May 22, 2014

Closure of the Route, 1940: Clipping

I've been doing some extensive newspaper microfilm research into the closure of the mountain route between Los Gatos and Olympia in 1940. During my research today, I ran across this lovely article that pretty much sums up all angles of the debate in fluid sarcastic anger. Enjoy!

[All spelling errors are my own unless I note them specifically in brackets]

Source: Santa Cruz Evening News
April 1st, 1940 (Issue 65:280, Pages 1:6, 2:4)


Judah Urges City To Fight Proposed Rail Abandonment As Protection To Community 
By H. R. Judah, Associate Editor  
Santa Cruz is approximately 78 miles from more than one million people who live in the San Francisco Bay Area. 
The Southern Pacific main line from San Francisco to Santa Cruz via Los Gatos, one of the oldest routes in the history of California railroading, has served the travel needs between the California metropolis, neighboring cities and Santa Cruz since the “eighties.” 
Passenger travel from Santa Cruz northerly to the Bay Cities in recent years has fallen off on account of competitive services by bus lines and on account of the growth in personal car registration in the sate and the great improvement in the highways. 
The fact remains, however, that people still travel by train—railroad advertisements call for more travel by train—which accounts no doubt for the railroad executive’s belief that train travel is to be definitely encourages for the present—and the future. This situation does not exactly tie in with a petition for the discontinuance of a line that has served one of the best known recreational areas in the West. 
WHAT OF THE FUTURE?
What is the future of railroad service, by the way? Suppose within a year the rail engineers develop a locomotive with some new form of propulsion and the light construction capable of haling lighter trains over the Los Gatos route at lower cost than at present, and that meanwhile the discontinuance of service order has been granted. The Southern Pacific Company would not petition for a renewal of service, we feel sure. But the trouble is—that no other railroad is in a position to give this service. 
It must be conceded that every franchise in public interest has, by its non-competitive nature, certain obligations that are a part of the right to carry on business. Unprofitable branches must be supported by profit making lines, or the unprofitable branch must be made to pay by investment of new capital with new appeals to the traveling public. 
BAD PSYCHOLOGY
The psychology of discontinuance of train service to this city “over the hill” would be highly detrimental to this city. Santa Cruz has been a recognized terminal for nearly 60 years. Santa Cruz has been off the MAIN LINES of travel in California since it became a city of growing importance, but it has at least been served by forms of transportation that it must hold onto at all costs—if for no other reason than the fact that geographically the city is so placed that transportation is a part, and an important part, of its present and future economic existence. 
SLIPPING
The interpretation of a discontinuance order on rail service to Santa Cruz throughout the state would be that Santa Cruz is “slipping”; Santa Cruz is not of sufficient importance to warrant train travel from a great metropolitan area by the most direct and shortest railroad line; Santa Cruz, the home of the world famous Big Trees, the oldest publicized grove in the state, can be reached no longer by the rail line that runs right through the grove, but must be reached by the changes from rail to bus, or vice versa, and maybe more than once, while the traveler is in transit. 
Let each one take home to himself the reactions he gets when he is told that he must “change cars” to reach a destination that is at the longest is only 78 miles from the starting point. That certainly gives one of the plain ideas of “branch line” service. Santa Cruz has been on a “branch” of state transportation service for too many years. We must not let it get worse. 
AS TO COSTS
Now as to costs and earnings on the S.P. line via Los Gatos. We notice that the railroad company touches on the lack of passenger travel between Santa Cruz and Los Gatos on the short line. But what of the passengers on the 7 a.m. train out of Santa Cruz every week-day who fill the train up before it reaches San Francisco? 
Los Gatos, San Jose and Palo Alto passengers have filled the train every time the writer has ever used it. We will bet that if the petition for the discontinuance of the Los Gatos-Santa Cruz line were granted that the railroad company would see to it that Los Gatos, San Jose and Palo Alto passengers using that morning service would be protected and if not the protests would soon settle it. 
I can see the Southern Pacific side of this question up to a certain point. We can not see the fairness of rail isolation of an area of 25,000 people. We are not convinced that Eastern rail parties would take kindly to changes of transportation forms to reach the Big Trees or any other natural attraction in this county. This business would be materially affected to the detriment of the whole area.

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Maps, Maps, Maps

The railroad between Santa Cruz Depot and Vasona Junction was 31.1 miles long. Separated out, that is 6.8 miles between Santa Cruz Depot and Felton Depot, 9 miles between Felton Depot and Laurel, and 15.3 miles between Laurel and Vasona Junction. And we cannot forget the 6.3 miles between Felton Depot and Boulder Creek. Or the roughly 8 miles of the Dougherty Extension Railroad north of Boulder Creek. Or even the 1.7 mile Old Felton branch. I could, perhaps sadly, go on.

Railroads in the Santa Cruz Mountains were a vast network that trunked off of the main line to make branch lines, and subbranch lines. Some were short-lived, and others were not. Trying to stick all of these on a map...well that's darn-near impossible. Yet, it is something I am required to do because geography is everything.

Simply stating geographic coordinates isn't enough, nor is noting distances between stations and stops. All of these things are helpful, yes, but they are best understood when looked at together on a map. I do not possess mapmaking skills, but I can trace. Fortunately, the United States Geological Survey program has published many maps over the past century and they have been largely digitalized for public download at various repositories such as the USGS website (http://www.usgs.gov) and the University of Texas at Austin's Perry-Castañeda Library (http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/topo/california/). By using these maps and then superimposing rivers, streams, and rail lines on them, a better idea of how everything links together is possible. These maps also help in determining where specific lines and spurs existed, though they are not always as accurate as they appear, especially regarding the railroad.

The following map is a sample of the map of Felton. The final version of the map will stretch all the way to Santa Cruz and will probably cut a bit more off the top. The railroad lines will hopefully be straighter (these were hand drawn digitally), though the creeks are pretty well off. Captions for the creeks and river will also be more fluid and cling to their bodies of water more accurately. Creeks are shown as smaller than the San Lorenzo River. Likewise, the narrow-gauged tracks between Old Felton and Felton Junction are thinner in scale than the other standard-guaged tracks. These differences will be noted in a scale at a later point in development. A scale rule will also be included to measure distances and a notation pointing true north will be added.


By looking at this map, you can learn a lot about where things were and how active an area was. To give a general idea to the scale, since a rule is lacking at present, this map is roughly 2 miles vertically and 1-1/4 mile horizontally. This alone tells you that a lot of stuff was happening in a small space. One thing it doesn't tell you, nor will, is when this activity was taking place. If one were to look at this map, they would assume that Big Trees Landing and Big Trees (accidentally cut off) were adjacent to each other simultaneously, but in reality one succeeded the other. This map is not a chronological history of the Felton area.

What this map does tell you, though, is that there were tracks on both sides of the river at one point or another, that Roaring Camp is midway between Felton Depot and Big Trees, and that there were six major trestles in the area (not counting culverted creeks like Bull Creek or other smaller streams). It also shows that the network of water bodies defined the railroad more than roads, therefore roads have been removed due to a lack of relative importance. The locations of station structures are noted as well as their placements, but their sizes and importance are not included. Finally, notes at the fringes of the map point out where other locations (and, presumably, maps) are in relation to this location.

Thus maps provide a helpful means of providing information, but are not exhaustive in their abilities. The articles themselves will provide dates of operation, the type of station (freight, flag, full agency), the lengths of trestles and tunnels, the number of sidings, spurs, etc. These types of things could fit on the map, but it would crowd out the basic features, which are essential to the map. As I further refine and develop these maps for each section, I hope to make them more informative while still keeping it as simple as is reasonable.

Please send me suggestions, recommendations, comments, and whatnot to me. I'd love to hear input and see what things may be of interest to others that I may have overlooked. Cheers!

Tuesday, May 6, 2014

The Problems with Names

If there's one thing I have discovered in my research, it is that many locations went by many different names. They are not consistent, sometimes not even within their own time period. Perhaps the most problematic name is "Wright's Station". This small village began life as "Wright's Station" but quickly became simply "Wright's". Then, naturally, people got lazy and the apostrophe was removed, turning it into "Wrights". Finally, around 1890, the s was dropped entirely, turning it into "Wright". This last name is what stuck, according to the Southern Pacific Railroad, but most people still seem to call the town site "Wright's" regardless of its longest-established name.

Other more varied names have crept up, though, some with annoying consequences. Brackney, for instance, began its life as "River Station", located near the later site of Bonny Brae. It quickly progressed to "Riverside" then "Pettis". This is where things get strange. From Pettis, it moved, literally, a mile north to become a few years later "Brackney" (originally misspelled "Brockney"). Then, just for good measure, "Bonny Brae" popped up near the site of River Station's original location. During the earliest period, another stop, "Kent's Spur", also appeared near the same general geographic place, though it's clear it was not identical to any of those previously listed stations above.

I'll end this rant with Mount Hermon, a site that prior to 1880 was called Arcadia. When the South Pacific Coast trucked through the area, it was renamed "Tuxedo" to avoid confusion with another Arcadia located elsewhere. But on timetables, it was simply called "Campus", except in the year immediately prior to its closure. Around 1903, the Mount Hermon Association took over, and the stop was listed alternately as either "Mt. Hermon" or "Mt. Hermon Assoc. Grounds". At the end, it finally reverted to the much simpler "Mt. Hermon," the name it still bares today (though it more properly is labelled "Mount Hermon" on signage outside the station house).

With frequent name changes come confusion. While the changes are fairly easy to document in-text, labeling the individual articles has become somewhat of a burden because of this. Which name is the best name for the site? The first? The last? The most grammatically proper? The longest-established? Issues such as these will have to be resolved and, fortunately, most lend themselves to easy resolution. Still others, though, such as "Wright's" above suggest that the most popular rendition, even if used only for a short while, may be the most appropriate.

Moving on to one further issue regarding names, the tunnels and trestles in the Santa Cruz Mountains were not always named. At least not officially. Formally, the tunnels were numbered 1 through 8, beginning with the short tunnel in Cats Canyon. After standard-gauging, they were renumbered 1 through 6, with the Summit Tunnel becoming the first in the new numbering. Yet even in this example, it becomes obvious that some of the tunnels have names, even if they never formally did. The "Summit Tunnel" is the best-known, but the "Eccles Tunnel", now the Atomic Vault; the "Clems" or "Mountain Charlie Tunnel"; and the "Mission Tunnel" in Santa Cruz are also all well-known. Should these tunnels simply be numbered as the Southern Pacific intended, or should their popular names be used. Again, in-text there is little issue, but the titles of articles beg a name even while logic dictates that the number is enough.

Trestles are even more difficult. The Southern Pacific did not appear to number their trestles, at least not in any standardized system. Making things more difficult, three separate branches crossed the San Lorenzo River at various points, with the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company crossing it more times north of Boulder Creek. What do you name these trestles? There were nine crossings of the river by the Southern Pacific, but they were not all there at the same time. The first crossing was at the river's mouth and falls out of the purview of this book, yet it needs to be mentioned, I suppose. The third crossing in Felton was only installed much later than the others. Does it cause everything to get renumbered or is it just called something else? For the most part, I have adopted the method of naming trestles after the body of water (or land) they cross and numbering them from downstream to upstream. Trestles caused by spur lines are named separately, even if they cross the same body of water. Thus the trestle in Felton is the "Felton Trestle" to separate it from the older trestles along the route. The Los Gatos trestle to the Forbes Mill is the "Forbes Mill Trestle" since it is on a spur as well. Fortunately all the SCVM&L Co. trestles are north of Boulder Creek and do not complicate the numbering scheme much. Since the Southern Pacific railroad failed to number or name these trestles in any helpful way, mostly instead just naming it "trestle between [blank] and [blank]", the method I have chosen will hopefully work just as well.

As usual, give me your thoughts and opinions. For issues such as these, I have been very flexible. Some trestles and tunnels will get articles of their own while others will be meshed in with station and spur articles. This is to keep page numbers down a bit and because, quite frankly, there isn't a lot of information on a lot of the trestles.